If you have ever tried to look up statistics on alcoholism rates in the United States, you might have noticed a term used in its place: alcohol use disorder (AUD). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2015 reported 15.1 million adults, or 6.2% of the population, having an AUD. Additionally, 623,000 adolescents ages 12–17, or 2.5% of this age group, live with an AUD.
This may confuse some people used to the term alcoholic or alcoholism, though: What is an alcohol use disorder? How does it differ from alcoholism? Is there any difference at all? With the prevalence of Alcoholics Anonymous, the term alcoholism has become widely used in reference to anyone struggling with an alcohol problem. But do all alcoholics have an AUD? Is everyone with an AUD an alcoholic?
What Is an Alcohol Use Disorder?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classifies various mental illnesses and disorders. It is used by mental health professionals nationwide to categorize and diagnose individuals seeking treatment.
The updated DSM-V, released in May 2013, combined the two former categorizations of abnormal alcohol use (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) into one diagnosis: alcohol use disorder. The severity of an individual’s AUD is broken into classifications: mild, moderate, or severe.
The DSM-V diagnoses individuals with an AUD if they have experienced a number of the 11 outlined symptoms in the past 12 months:
- Drinking more or for a longer period of time than intended.
- Feeling incapable of cutting back on the amount of alcohol consumed.
- Becoming sick for an extended period of time as a result of drinking too much.
- Inability to concentrate due to alcohol cravings.
- Inability to care for a family, hold down a job, or perform in school.
- Continuing to drink despite problems caused with friends or family.
- Decreased participation in activities which were once important.
- Finding oneself in dangerous or harmful situations as a direct result of drinking.
- Continuing to drink despite adding to another health problem, feeling depressed or anxious or blacking out.
- Drinking more as a result of a tolerance to alcohol.
- Experiencing withdrawal symptoms.
If you have at least two of these symptoms, this indicates the presence of an alcohol use disorder. Whether you have a mild, moderate, or severe AUD depends on how many of these symptoms you experience.
- Mild: Two to three symptoms
- Moderate: Four to five symptoms
- Severe: Six or more symptoms
What Is Alcoholism?
“Alcoholism” is a term often used to describe someone with a severe form of alcohol dependence. Many times people use it to refer to someone who simply drinks too much. Alcoholism is more severe than simply having a bad weekend, though.
Individuals with alcoholism have many of the symptoms listed in the DSM-V criteria. Whether you drink every day or are a weekend binger, if you drink more than expected or continue to drink despite the consequences, you may be an alcoholic.
The term “Alcoholic” is often used in regards to the Alcoholics Anonymous program. The Big Book of Alcoholics Anonymous states, “If, when you honestly want to, you find you cannot quit entirely, or if when drinking, you have little control over the amount you take, you are probably alcoholic.” However, neither Alcoholics Anonymous nor its members will tell you whether or not you are an alcoholic. Instead, they insist you are the only one who can make that decision.
What Is the Difference Between Alcoholism and Alcohol Use Disorder?
Alcohol use disorder is a diagnosis used by medical professionals to describe someone with an alcohol problem, to varying degrees. Alcoholism is a non-medical term used most often in everyday language and within the rooms of Alcoholics Anonymous.
If you see a doctor for your alcohol use, they will not diagnose you as an alcoholic. Instead, they will use the symptoms in the DSM-V to determine whether you have a mild, moderate, or severe AUD. If you go to Alcoholics Anonymous, very rarely will you hear the term alcohol use disorder. However, a variety of alcoholic types attend meetings.
How do I know if I have an AUD or alcoholism?
Although it is best to consult with a medical professional for expert advice, you can do a quick diagnosis of yourself. Ask yourself whether you have any of the symptoms listed above and see how many apply to your life.
If you are severely struggling with your alcohol consumption, it is best to seek help. You can attend a 12-step program like Alcoholics Anonymous or, if your symptoms are more severe, you can find an alcoholism treatment program.
With more than 15,000 treatment centers in the United States alone, there are a variety of options for those living with alcoholism, from detox to an Intensive Outpatient Program. Finding a community of your peers who are also trying to get sober can help provide support during early recovery. You don’t have to manage your alcoholism alone.