Subsys, one of the brand names for the opioid fentanyl, is an opioid narcotic available in a spray formulation. The drug is FDA-approved for cancer pain in adults and can be useful in people with trouble swallowing pills. As an opioid that is up to 100 times stronger than morphine, fentanyl can be highly addictive. Even though Subsys is a controlled substance, misuse and drug diversion can occur, paving the way to addiction.
Article at a Glance:
- Subsys, a brand name for fentanyl, is an oral opioid spray that can be misused.
- As a Schedule II controlled substance, Subsys is highly addictive.
- Signs of Subys addiction may include changes in mental status, behavior and sleep habits.
- Medical detox followed by rehab can help you overcome a struggle with Subsys.
Table of Contents
Since Subsys is an opioid, it binds to specific central nervous system receptors, reaching its max concentration in the body in about 1.5 hours. Like all opioids, Subsys can change how the body sends pain signals and senses pain. The drug is also a central nervous system depressant, slowing breathing and heart rate.
Subsys can cause a euphoric feeling, which is one reason it’s addictive. Subsys changes the amount of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine. That accounts for the euphoria people may experience, but also triggers a reward response. A pleasure and reward response in the brain can lead to an addiction.
Because of the risks, Subsys is only available through facilities that participate in the TIRF REMS Access program. It is also classified as a Schedule II drug by the DEA. Schedule II indicates that fentanyl, the active ingredient in Subsys, has a high likelihood of severe psychological and physical dependence. For this reason, possessing Subsys without a valid prescription is illegal.
What Is Subsys (Fentanyl Sublingual Spray)?
Subsys (Fentanyl Sublingual Spray) is a brand-name form of the opioid fentanyl which comes as a spray. It is intended to be prescribed to people with cancer experiencing breakthrough pain on an existing opioid regimen. Because the drug is so strong, only those on the equivalent of morphine 60 mg around the clock for at least a week can take it. Further, the drug is only approved to be taken in conjunction with a long-acting opioid and used for breakthrough pain only.
Subsys is not the only form of fentanyl available. Other dosage forms of fentanyl include an oral lozenge, a skin patch, a nasal spray, a tablet and a liquid for injection in hospital patients.
Signs, Symptoms & Side Effects of Abuse
The symptoms of Subsys misuse are similar to other opioids. If someone is prescribed Subsys, they may take it more often than prescribed or claim to have more pain than they do to get more of the drug. Any time a drug is taken outside of how it’s intended and prescribed by a medical professional can be considered misuse. Stealing Subsys or diverting it from medical use in any way is misuse.
There are certain behavioral and psychological symptoms that can be associated with opioid misuse in general. Someone who’s misusing Subsys or another opioid might seem to have rapid mood swings. They might go from seeming euphoric to being depressed or irritable. Someone who’s misusing opioids might also start to lose interest in other activities or they may have changed eating or sleeping habits.
Physical symptoms of Subsys misuse can include:
- Cravings for Subsys or other opioids
- Excessive sleepiness
- Changes in sleeping habits
- Weight loss
- Flu-like symptoms
- Decreased sexual urges
- Hygiene problems
Addiction is a diagnosable disease with specific symptoms. Although a person might not have all the signs of addiction, some common signs to be aware of include:
- Obsession with taking and obtaining the drug
- No concern for the harm done to oneself or loved ones because of drugs
- Loss of control when it comes to taking the drug
- Hiding the drug
- Wanting to stop taking the drug but not being able to
- Changes in mood or behavior
- Loss of concern over appearance and personal hygiene
- Withdrawing from friends and family
- Declines in performance at school or work
- Failing with regard to responsibilities
- Continuing to take the drug even when there are negative side effects
A Subsys overdose can happen quickly. If you suspect someone is having an overdose with Subsys, you should administer the opioid reversal agent naloxone, sometimes sold under the brand name Narcan, and seek emergency medical help right away. Some of the symptoms of a Subsys overdose can include:
- Slowed breathing
- Extreme drowsiness or stupor
- Flaccid muscles
- Cold and clammy skin
- Small pupils, although pupils can also be enlarged
- Slow heartbeat
- Low blood pressure
- A snoring sound
Subsys and Alcohol
Mixing alcohol and an opioid like Subsys can be dangerous. Both alcohol and Subsys are central nervous system depressants. Although they have different mechanisms of action, both slow the functions of the central nervous system down and can, therefore, have additive effects.
At a minimum, taking alcohol and Subsys together can lead to severe drowsiness and confusion. The worst-case scenario is that a person’s breathing could slow so much that it causes an overdose. This can lead to brain and organ damage or death because of a lack of oxygen. If someone is struggling with two substances like Subsys and alcohol simultaneously, they may require specialized addiction treatment.
The consequences of taking Subsys over the long-term are unclear. The drug has not been studied in people who have taken it for longer than 149 days. Further, it is possible to develop an addiction to the drug at any time, even if you are taking it as prescribed. As a result, experts recommend taking Subsys only at the lowest doses and for the shortest duration possible.
Subsys and other opioids can change levels of neurotransmitters in the brain and can alter the brain’s overall function. When the brain begins to rely on the presence of Subsys, physical dependence occurs. If someone who is physically dependent on Subsys suddenly stops taking it, they can experience withdrawal symptoms while their brain readjusts to functioning without the drug.
Subsys withdrawal symptoms are similar to those of other opioids and can include:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Trouble sleeping
- Hot or cold flashes
- Muscle cramps
- Runny eyes or nose
Withdrawal Timeline and Symptom Duration
Everyone experiences a slightly different Subsys withdrawal timeline. Some of the factors that play a role in how long withdrawal symptoms last include how long the drug was taken, whether it’s stopped cold turkey and the dosage. Taking other substances simultaneously with Subsys can also affect the withdrawal timeline.
Managing Withdrawal Symptoms
Managing symptoms of withdrawal on your own can be difficult because opioid withdrawal is extremely uncomfortable. A full detox is necessary for treatment, but some people lapse back into taking the drug because they find that managing the symptoms of Subsys withdrawal without help is too difficult.
Several different strategies exist for managing or minimizing withdrawal symptoms. One is to slowly taper the dose of opioids under a doctor’s care. Another strategy is to replace the opioid with a longer-acting opioid that can prevent both cravings and withdrawal symptoms.
Subsys Medications & Detox
Certain therapies are approved to help ease withdrawal symptoms from opioids like Subsys. This strategy is called medication-assisted treatment, or MAT. Multiple medications are available and approved for this purpose:
Methadone is one of the most well-known treatments used during opioid withdrawal and detox. Methadone is a long-acting opioid, so…Learn More
Buprenorphine is an alternative to methadone. Buprenorphine effects the same receptors as other opioids, but with milder effects to prevent…Learn More
Naltrexone is a drug that blocks opioid receptors. It doesn’t help with withdrawal symptoms and it doesn’t eliminate cravings, but…Learn More
Any medication prescribed during Subsys detox is intended to be part of a larger treatment program. There’s no magic cure for withdrawal or addiction. Approved medications are instead tools to help increase the likelihood that someone will succeed in overcoming their struggle with Subsys.
Medical detox is the first step in recovering from Subsys. A medical detox typically takes place in an inpatient environment, where there is supervision from a team of medical professionals to prevent complications and treat Subsys withdrawal symptoms. Medical detox can include mental health care, treatment and, if necessary, medications.
The detox can occur in a standalone facility or be part of an addiction treatment center. Many people find that it’s better to go through detox in the same place they’ll receive addiction treatment for continuity of care and fewer transitions during a difficult time in their lives.
During a Subsys medical detox, doctors can prescribe MAT if needed, as well as medications for common withdrawal symptoms such as insomnia or diarrhea.
After medical detox, rehab can begin to teach you the skills that you need to learn to live life without Subsys. Rehabilitation programs can take place in different settings and last for varying lengths of time. However, all programs should have some core concepts that are foundational to the treatment provided. Some of the principles for effective treatment include:
- No one treatment is right for everyone
- Addiction is a disease that’s complex but treatable
- Addiction affects both brain function and behavior
- Addiction treatment should address all of a person’s needs
- Staying in treatment for a long enough period is essential
Rehab can take place in either an inpatient or an outpatient environment.
Choosing A Rehab Center for Subsys Addiction Treatment
Due to the highly personal nature of Subsys addiction treatment, many of the factors to weigh when choosing a rehab center are based on the individual. Some people will fare better in one type of treatment over another. Specific things that are relevant when choosing a rehab center include:
- How severe is the Subsys addiction?
- How far from home does the person want to go for treatment?
- Is the person able to pause their daily life to focus on treatment as an inpatient?
- What will insurance cover regarding the cost of treatment?
- Does the individual require a medical detox?
- Does the person struggle with multiple substances, or with just Subsys alone?
- Does the person have any co-occurring mental health problems that need treatment?
Our caring addiction experts at The Recovery Village can answer questions you may have about medical detox and inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment to put you on the right path as you overcome your struggle with Subsys. Reach out to The Recovery Village today to seek assistance.
FAQs & Related
- What does Subsys look like?
- Subsys 100 mcg is white and bright blue
- Subsys 200 mcg is white and green
- Subsys 400 mcg is white and bright pink
- Subsys 600 mcg is white and purple
- Subsys 800 mcg is white and orange
- Subsys 1200 mcg is white and brown
- Subsys 1600 mcg is white and red
- How is Subsys used?
Subsys comes in a single-use spray device. The medication is designed to be sprayed directly into the mouth, under the tongue. Then, the medication in Subsys is absorbed by the sublingual mucosa. Subsys is supposed to be prescribed only to treat breakthrough cancer pain in patients already on around-the-clock opioid medication, such as a certain dosage of morphine. Subsys isn’t supposed to be taken for any other kinds of pain. Subsys can also only be prescribed by clinics and hospitals that are part of the Transmucosal Immediate-Release Fentanyl (TIRF) REMS program.
- In the event of an emergency, should naloxone be administered to reverse a Subsys overdose?
When someone overdoses on Subsys or any opioid, the opioid reversal drug naloxone should be given as soon as possible. However, even if someone is given naloxone, they still need emergency medical care. Naloxone’s effects may wear off before the opioid wears off, which may cause the person to overdose a second time.
- How long does Subsys stay in your system?
The half-life of Subsys can be used to estimate how long a dose of the drug might stay in a person’s system. The half-life is important to prevent an overdose from occurring. The half-life of Subsys, on average, is anywhere from five to 12 hours. It takes around five half-lives for the full dose of a drug to leave the system. Based on these estimates, it could take 25 to 60 hours for a dose of Subsys to fully leave someone’s system.
While it’s possible to estimate the half-life of Subsys, there are individual factors that determine specifically how long any substance stays in your system. Subsys and its breakdown products can show up in a urine test anywhere from 24 to 72 hours after taking the drug. In a hair test, a 1.5-inch section of hair will generally capture the past 90 days of drug use.
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Drug Enforcement Administration. “Fentanyl.” Accessed September 13, 2020.
Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Signs of Opioid Abuse.” Accessed September 13, 2020.
World Health Organization. “Clinical Guidelines for Withdrawal Management and Treatment of Drug Dependence in Closed Settings.” 2009. Accessed September 13, 2020.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT).” September 1, 2020. Accessed September 13, 2020.
Anne Arundel County Department of Health. “Naloxone: Frequently Asked Questions.” September 9, 2019. Accessed September 13, 2020.
Hallare, Jericho; Gerriets, Valerie. “Half Life.” StatPearls, April 30, 2020. Accessed September 13, 2020.
ARUP Laboratories. “Drug Plasma Half-Life and Urine Detection Window.” January 2019. Accessed September 13, 2020.
Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P.; Mitchell, Shannon D.; et al. “Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, May 17, 2014. Accessed September 13, 2020.
Medical Disclaimer: The Recovery Village aims to improve the quality of life for people struggling with substance use or mental health disorder with fact-based content about the nature of behavioral health conditions, treatment options and their related outcomes. We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It should not be used in place of the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare providers.