When a depression relapse occurs, treatment such as medication, cognitive behavioral therapy or ECT for depression can help a person to recover.
Though people who receive depression treatment may experience a significant reduction of their symptoms, a depression relapse is still possible over time. In fact, research shows that almost half of people who discontinue treatment for depression will relapse within a few months. While depression relapse statistics show that this condition is likely, there are steps people can take to prevent depression from returning.
What Is Depression Relapse?
Most depression relapse definitions are similar, and each provides additional information about what this type of relapse looks like. According to medical professionals, relapse occurs when a person returns to meeting the full diagnostic criteria for depression after being in remission. In other words, a depression relapse is when someone becomes depressed again after feeling better for a period of time.
Signs of a Depression Relapse
Since a relapse means a return to depression, depression relapse symptoms are the same as those associated with major depressive disorder. A person who has relapsed into depression may also have thoughts of suicide or feel hopeless or worthless.
Common signs of a depression relapse:
- A lack of interest in previously enjoyable activities
- Sleeping more or less than usual
- Eating more or less than usual
- Changes in weight
- A persistent mood of unhappiness
- Low energy levels
- Moving more slowly than normal
- Feeling physically uncomfortable without any medical reason
- Irritability or anxiety
Common Relapse Triggers
Certain depression relapse triggers can increase a person’s risk of returning to depression. These can include any of the following:
Stress and depression can go hand in hand, and coping with life’s stressors can cause a person to slip back into depression. One study found that women with a history of depression were more likely to relapse after experiencing negative life events or stressors like financial difficulties.
Depression relapse after stopping medication appears to be common. An analysis of multiple studies shows that the relapse rate is about double for people who stop treatment compared to those who continue to take medication treatment for depression.
Preventing Depression Relapse
A depression relapse prevention plan can help reduce the risk of recurrence. A person may develop a plan with a counselor before ending regular treatment sessions, and it can include a list of relapse triggers, signs of relapse and tools for coping with stressors. Being able to recognize signs of an impending relapse can help a person prevent a full relapse from occurring.
A relapse prevention plan may include beneficial activities, such as regular exercise, meditation or spending time with friends. It may also include a list of steps to take if signs of relapse appear.
The Importance of Maintenance Treatment
A depression relapse prevention plan should also include maintenance treatment. This might include monthly check-ins with a therapist. Medication is also an important component of maintenance treatment. Because most antidepressants are effective for preventing depression relapse, continuing to take medication under the supervision of a doctor can be important for long-term recovery from depression.
Related Topic: High functioning depression treatment
Treating a Depression Relapse
For people experiencing the return of depression symptoms, it is important to know how to cope with depression relapse. Various therapies and treatments are effective for treating depression.
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT is a common treatment for depression. It is effective because it helps people change negative ways of thinking.
- Interpersonal Therapy: In interpersonal therapy for depression, a person explores relationships that may be contributing to the condition.
- Medication: Depression medications can help by having a positive effect on brain chemicals that are responsible for mood and stress.
- Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): When medications and therapy are not beneficial, ECT for depression may be an option.
Sim, Kang; et al. “Prevention of relapse and recurrence in adults with major depressive disorder: Systematic review and meta-analyses of controlled trials.” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, February 2016. Accessed October 4, 2019.
Moller, Hans-Jurgen; et al. “Relapse or recurrence in depression: Why has the cutoff been set at 6 months?” Medicographia, 2011. Accessed October 4, 2019.
National Institute of Mental Health. “Depression.” February 2018. Accessed October 4, 2019.
van Loo, Hanna; et al. “Multiple risk factors predict recurrence of major depressive disorder in women.” Journal of Affective Disorders, July 15, 2015. Accessed October 4, 2019.
Burcusa, Stephanie; Iacono, William. “Risk for recurrence in depression.” Clinical Psychology Reviews, December 2007. Accessed October 4, 2019.
Lustman, Patrick; et al. “The course of major depression in diabetes.” General Hospital Psychiatry, March 1997. Accessed October 4, 2019.
National Institute of Mental Health. “Depression: What you need to know.” (n.d.). Accessed October 4, 2019.
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