Serotonin Syndrome – Adderall and Serotonin
Adderall is an amphetamine drug that is commonly used to treat ADHD. It is commonly prescribed to adolescents and teenagers, though more and more adults are being diagnosed with ADHD and given prescriptions in their adult years. Taking the drug in low doses has been proven to be effective at increasing attentiveness, lowering impulsivity, and helping people with ADHD focus better and lead functional lives.
When taken as directed, the drug has little risk of harmful side effects or complications. However, Adderall is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance due to its high potential for abuse and addiction. Many people take Adderall as a recreational drug or misuse it as a performance-enhancing drug. At higher doses, Adderall can produce euphoric effects and release high levels of serotonin into the system. When they are abused, drugs that affect serotonin levels put people at risk of experiencing dangerous side effects. Combining Adderall with other serotonin-increasing drugs makes the risk of adverse side effects even greater.
Adderall, being an amphetamine, has a direct impact on the brain’s serotonin levels. It leads to an increase in serotonin. When the drug in small doses, as prescribed by doctors for patients with ADHD, the change in serotonin is not enough to create a drastic change in the serotonin levels. Too much of the drug, however, can release an excessive amount of serotonin into the brain and can bring about a dangerous condition known as serotonin syndrome.
Symptoms of serotonin syndrome include:
- Problems with coordination
- Nausea and vomiting
- Changes in blood pressure
- Changes in body temperature
- Digestive problems
- Kidney damage
- Changes in heart rate
- Loss of consciousness
Treatment for serotonin syndrome depends on the severity of the symptoms experienced by the patient. The first step is to stop the intake of the drug or drugs that have been increasing serotonin levels. Depending on how severe the symptoms are, stomach pumping or activated charcoal may be used. Most symptoms should resolve within a day while others may persist for several weeks after the initial treatment.
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