Xtampza ER is a brand-name, extended-release formulation of oxycodone oral tablets. It can be detected in the urine between two and 24 hours following the time of ingestion. Blood tests can detect Xtampza ER for up to 24 hours, and saliva tests can detect Xtampza ER between one and four days depending on the patient’s unique metabolic factors.
Xtampza ER is a brand-name, extended-release formulation of oxycodone oral tablets. It can be detected in the urine between two and 24 hours following the time of ingestion. Blood tests can detect Xtampza ER for up to 24 hours, and saliva tests can detect Xtampza ER between one and four days depending on the patient’s unique metabolic factors. The mean elimination half-life of Xtampza ER is 4.5 hours.
Xtampza ER is prescribed for the management of moderate to severe chronic pain. Patients should be treated with milder forms of medication before taking Xtampza ER due to its high potential for misuse. Initial minimum doses should be given at 9 mg and then gradually titrated until the minimum effective dose is defined.
With opioid-tolerant patients, the maximum single dose of Xtampza ER is 36 mg, with a maximum daily limit of 72 mg. A daily dose of 72 mg of Xtampza ER is the daily equivalent of 80 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride. Patients are opioid tolerant if they’ve been taking at least a daily dose of 60 mg of morphine or the equivalent of other synthetic opioids for at least a week. Xtampza ER doses are to be taken once every 12 hours for around-the-clock pain management.
In the United States, Xtampza ER is a Schedule II controlled substance, with Schedule I being reserved for the most dangerous substances. In Canada, oxycodone products are Schedule II controlled substances under the Controlled Drugs and Substance Act. In the United Kingdom, Xtampza ER is a Class A drug, which is reserved for substances that are the most likely to cause harm.
Xtampza ER is one of many formulations of oxycodone that are on the market for oral ingestion or sublingual administration. Sublingual variations are administered by mouth but are designed to dissolve in the gums or lining of the cheek.
Immediate-release versions of oxycodone include OxyFast, OxyIR, OxyNorm, and Roxicodone. OxyContin is another controlled-released variation of oxycodone with a 12-hour duration.
Oxycodone is also available in combination with other substances. Percocet, Endocet, Roxicet, and Tylox combine oxycodone with acetaminophen (Tylenol). Endodan, Percodan, Oxycodan, and Roxiprin combine oxycodone with aspirin. Combunox combines oxycodone with ibuprofen.
Xtampza ER reduces the patient’s perception of pain by binding to specific opioid receptors in the body. Common side effects of Xtampza ER include nausea, constipation, itching, dizziness, abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, migraine, anxiety, cough, sweating, and hot flashes. Other adverse effects may include drowsiness, blurred vision, diarrhea, chills, irritability, swelling of the extremities, and joint, back, or muscle pain.
The terminal elimination half-life of Xtampza ER is 4.5 hours following the time of administration. Steady-state plasma concentrations are typically achieved within 24 to 36 hours. Xtampza ER’s elimination half-life is longer when ingested with food, with an average time of 5.6 hours in the fed state.
Elderly patients have 15% greater elimination times of Xtampza ER compared to patients between the ages of 21 and 45. Women have 20% higher plasma concentrations on average compared to their male counterparts. Researchers are unsure as to why this is the case.
Patients with impaired renal (kidney) function have a mean elimination time of one-hour longer than patients with healthy functioning kidneys. Patients with hepatic (liver) impairment have 2.3 times longer elimination times.
Other factors that contribute to Xtampza ER elimination times include the patient’s weight, body fat percentage, genetic tendencies, and opioid tolerance. In general, individuals who are metabolically adjusted to processing high, frequent doses of synthetic opioids are able to process them more effectively. Larger individuals tend to require higher doses of Xtampza ER to achieve the desired pain-relieving effects when compared to smaller patients.
As with nearly all opioids, Xtampza can be tested for in hair follicle screenings for up to 90 days following the time of the last dose. Xtampza may be present in the urine and blood at testable levels for up to 24 hours, and in the saliva for up to four days in some patients.
Mixing Xtampza ER and Alcohol
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