People may be more likely to develop depression or abuse substances after quitting smoking. A recent study shows that marijuana and alcohol use increased after people gave up cigarettes. Some participants also showed symptoms of depression.

Nicotine, a chemical found in cigarettes, is an addictive substance. When people have a nicotine addiction and stop using the substance, they typically undergo withdrawal symptoms than can cause anxiety and depression. In addition, people may pick up other habits to distract themselves from the urge to smoke.

Why Is Anxiety and Depression Common After Quitting Smoking?

Nicotine affects the reward centers in a person’s brain and increases dopamine levels. Dopamine reinforces behavior, so people want to continue using nicotine to feel the same rewarding effects. As they continue smoking, the brain begins to rely on nicotine to produce dopamine.

When someone stops smoking, they usually experience withdrawal symptoms. These symptoms occur because the brain is no longer receiving a chemical that it has become dependent on. Theses symptoms typically include:

  • Irritability
  • Attention problems
  • Sleeping problems
  • Increased appetite and weight gain
  • Tobacco cravings
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

Anxiety, depression and poor sleep are all interrelated. Because these conditions affect one another, it can create a vicious cycle where sleep deprivation leads to heightened anxiety and depression symptoms. In addition, high anxiety can cause someone to be unable to sleep, which can cause depression.

Statistics on Depression After Quitting Smoking

The previously mentioned study looked at former smokers, ages 18 or older, tracking changes that occurred from 2002 to 2016. It found that marijuana use, binge drinking and major depression rates all increased. The statistics show:

  • Heightened risk of binge drinking: From 2002 to 2016, past-month binge drinking increased from 17.22% to 22.33%.
  • Heightened risk of marijuana use: From 2002 to 2016, past-month marijuana use increased from 5.35% to 10.09%.
  • Heightened risk of major depression: From 2005 to 2016, cases of major depression increased from 4.88% to 6.04%.

How Long Does Depression After Quitting Smoking Last?

People can begin feeling depressed on the first day of quitting smoking. These feelings only continue for a few weeks and usually resolve within a month. However, people who have a history of depression may experience more severe symptoms of depression. Those who have no history of depression are unlikely to develop major depression.