Yes, cocaine use can cause fertility issues for both men and women. Cocaine can disrupt the ovulation cycle for women and mens’ sperm counts. It is also known to cause congenital disabilities (birth defects) and miscarriages when used during pregnancy. To avoid these fertility-related complications, expectant mothers and their partners are advised not to use harmful substances like cocaine.
Cocaine and Male Fertility
Cocaine use among men has been associated with a lower sperm count and low sperm motility.
A group of researchers interviewed men at an infertility clinic for an infertility study conducted in 2013. The results showed that men with a sperm count less than 20 million per milliliter were twice as likely to have used cocaine in the last two years. A normal sperm count is between 15-200 million per milliliter.
The same study also looked at the data in reverse. Researchers studied men with a five-year history of cocaine use and found that they were two times more likely to have low sperm motility.
How Does Cocaine Affect Sperm?
Cocaine binds to receptors on cells in the testicles and decreases their sperm production. When cocaine binds to these receptors, the sperm cells are constructed incorrectly and the cellular structures cannot survive. The cells die early and cannot mature into healthy, functioning sperm.
When cocaine enters the bloodstream, it increases neurotransmitters (chemical signals) like dopamine and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters are important for the development of new cells and tell the cells how to build their inner structures correctly. Therefore, these signals must be carefully regulated to produce new and functioning sperm cells.
Additionally, cocaine also causes blood vessels to constrict (tighten) and deliver less oxygen to some tissue. If tissue loses blood flow and oxygen over a long time, the cells can die.
Cocaine and Female Fertility
Currently, not as much research exists about cocaine and female fertility, as compared to the data on male fertility. However, cocaine use does harm female fertility as well.
Cocaine use affects the menstrual cycle by increasing levels of prolactin. High prolactin levels stop ovulation and can cause delayed and irregular periods.
Cocaine and Pregnancy
Cocaine should never be used during pregnancy, and it can cause many different types of birth defects, which are commonly referred to as congenital disabilities. The following are some common consequences associated with drug abuse during pregnancy:
- Low birth weight
- Lower IQ
- Premature birth
- Stroke and brain damage in the fetus
Drug or cocaine use lowers the chances of having a baby because of its effects on fertility. But if someone becomes pregnant, it can endanger the growing fetus.
If you or someone you know is abusing cocaine while pregnant, it is important to get help to stop using cocaine. Cocaine produces good feelings (euphoria) in people who use it and it may be hard to stop using this addictive drug. Damage to a developing fetus is permanent, so it is important to seek treatment for cocaine addiction if a person is pregnant or might be pregnant.
Key Points: Cocaine and Fertility
Several key takeaways about cocaine use and fertility include:
- Cocaine can cause infertility in both men and women
- Cocaine has been shown to lower sperm count in men
- Cocaine increases prolactin levels during use and withdrawal. Prolactin is a hormone that alters the menstrual cycle and can stop ovulation.
- Never use cocaine while pregnant, it can cause permanent congenital disabilities (birth defects) or miscarriage
If you or someone you know needs treatment for cocaine use or abuse, The Recovery Village can help. We have facilities located across the country and offer comprehensive treatment programming. To take the first step toward recovery, call The Recovery Village today.
Das, G. “Cocaine Abuse and Reproduction.” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994. Accessed 15 May 2019. Fronczak, C. M., et al. “The Insults of Illicit Drug Use on Male Fertility.” Journal of Andrology, 2011. Accessed 15 May 2019. Fulghum, Debra. “Drug Use and Pregnancy.” WebMD, 2008. Accessed 15 May 2019. Mello, N K, et al. “Effects of Dopamine on Prolactin: Interactions with Cocaine Self-Administration by Female Rhesus Monkeys.” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1994. Accessed 15 May 2019.
Das, G. “Cocaine Abuse and Reproduction.” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994. Accessed 15 May 2019.
Fronczak, C. M., et al. “The Insults of Illicit Drug Use on Male Fertility.” Journal of Andrology, 2011. Accessed 15 May 2019.
Fulghum, Debra. “Drug Use and Pregnancy.” WebMD, 2008. Accessed 15 May 2019.
Mello, N K, et al. “Effects of Dopamine on Prolactin: Interactions with Cocaine Self-Administration by Female Rhesus Monkeys.” The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1994. Accessed 15 May 2019.