Psychiatry is a health care profession that helps patients with their mental health. People who practice psychiatry, called psychiatrists, have specialized training in mental health and the treatment of psychological disorders. Some people specialize in a particular focal area, such as child psychiatry or forensic psychiatry.

Psychiatry Overview

Psychiatry is where medicine and psychology meet. While psychology is the study of how the human mind works, psychiatry uses evidence-based medication methods to treat the mind when its normal function is disrupted.

Since the brain is an organ connected to all other parts of the body, psychiatry works to diagnose, treat and prevent mental illnesses as other doctors do for other aspects of whole-body health.

What Is a Psychiatrist?

According to the American Psychiatric Association, the definition of a psychiatrist is, “A medical doctor (an M.D. or D.O.) who specializes in mental health.” They diagnose, treat and otherwise help manage and raise awareness about mental illnesses.

Psychiatrists should not be confused with psychologists. A psychologist is a person who studies how the mind works and how functions in the human brain influence certain behaviors. They may treat mental health conditions through psychotherapy but do not prescribe medications. On the other hand, as a medical doctor, a psychiatrist may prescribe medications to patients.

How to Become a Psychiatrist

There are several steps in becoming a licensed psychiatrist. Since it is a medical profession, the first step is to complete medical school. After that, a person will need extra training in psychiatry, and they will need to pass the necessary exams and gain the required licensure to practice.

Educational Requirements

To pursue psychiatry, a person will need a medical degree. The degree can be either a medical doctorate (M.D.) or a doctorate of osteopathic medicine (D.O.). To be accepted into medical school, someone will first need a bachelor’s degree, usually in science, and score high enough on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Many people intending to apply to medical school take specific pre-medical courses while they are an undergraduate.

Training

After completing medical school and obtaining a medical license, someone will need to complete four years of residency training in psychiatry. The first year of this residency is usually in a hospital setting, where the person will be exposed to a wide range of mental health disorders and related medical conditions. For the next three years, the person will usually focus their training more specifically on diagnosing and treating mental illnesses in a clinic, including learning psychotherapy techniques.

Certifications Required

Someone who wishes to become a psychiatrist will need a state license to practice medicine before they can become a psychiatry resident. To attain this license, the person will need to pass a written exam.

Although it is voluntary, most psychiatrists take a written and oral examination through the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) to become a board-certified psychiatrist. To stay certified, someone will need to renew this certification every 10 years.

Subspecialties

There are several specific areas of psychiatry that an individual can focus their training on and practice in. A psychiatrist can also become certified by the ABPN in these subspecialties.

  • Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: This specialty focuses on the mental health of children and teenagers. Kids and teens often present mental illnesses differently than adults do. Many mental health disorders also first show symptoms during these developmental ages, and early diagnosis and treatment can help keep them from becoming worse.
  • Geriatric Psychiatry: Geriatric psychiatry focuses on the mental health needs of the elderly. This practice can include managing dementia, coping with chronic illnesses and other emotional needs that come with old age.
  • Forensic Psychiatry: Also called legal psychiatry, forensic psychiatry deals with issues where mental health and the law overlap. A forensic psychiatrist may work with the court to determine a person’s mental competency to evaluate their fitness for trial, assess psychological damages or make power of attorney decisions.
  • Psychosomatic Medicine: Many mental health conditions overlap with the health of the rest of the body. Some mental illnesses manifest in physical ways, while physical illnesses can have an impact on the brain. This branch of psychiatry focuses on these areas.
  • Addiction Psychiatry: This specialty focuses on the mental health issues involved with and the treatment of substance use disorders, such as alcoholism or drug abuse. When a person struggles with both a substance use disorder and a mental health condition, they have co-occurring disorders.
  • Sleep Medicine: Psychiatrists and other doctors can specialize in sleep medicine. This field treats and manages sleep disorders, which frequently have a link to psychological disorders.
  • Pain Medicine: Many people with mental health disorders also struggle with some form of chronic pain. Psychiatrists can help their patients manage the emotional challenges of living with chronic pain, and help them take pain medications responsibly.

A psychiatrist can also focus their practice in specific illnesses or topics, such as eating disorders or sexual psychiatry.

Average Salary

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the estimated average annual salary for psychiatrists in the United States is $220,380. Their average hourly wage is $105.95.

How much money a psychiatrist makes can vary based on several factors, such as the:

  • City and state they work in
  • Level of education and where the degree was obtained
  • Hospital versus outpatient setting
  • Public versus private practice
  • Amount of experience

Pay for psychiatrists also varies by specialty. The average annual salary and pay range for specialties are approximately:

  • $195,087 ($70,523 – $276,845) for addiction psychiatry
  • $227,316 ($120,000 – $266,554) for child and adolescent psychiatry
  • $95,561 ($51,474 – $244,539) for consultant psychiatry
  • $177,330 ($70,920 – $187,199) for forensic psychiatry
  • $195,995 ($179,546 – $297,988) for geriatric psychiatry
  • $249,407 ($205,000 – $276,000) for military psychiatry

Treatments a Psychiatrist Can Provide

The services that a psychiatrist can provide are like those of other medical doctors but focused on mental health. These include screening for and diagnosing mental illnesses, plus providing various types of treatment. A psychiatrist can provide counseling to their patients, prescribe medications and sometimes operate specialized equipment for identifying and treating mental disorders.

Evaluation and Diagnosis

The first stage of helping a patient’s mental health is to screen them and diagnose any mental health disorders they may have. A psychiatric evaluation usually involves meeting with the patient in person and asking a series of questions. A review of their medical history, including any past mental health concerns, is included.

Psychiatrists in the United States and many other countries use the American Psychiatric Association’s guidebook, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), as their main source of guidelines for diagnosing mental health conditions.

Some psychiatrists may also use diagnostic and treatment guidelines from other major health authorities such as The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders from the World Health Organization (WHO). Committees of psychiatric experts periodically update these documents based on the latest, best research available.

Prescribe Medication

As medical doctors, psychiatrists are qualified to write prescriptions for pharmaceutical drugs and other medications. Just as with other medical conditions, there is a wide array of medicine available to treat mental disorders, with different benefits and side effects. A psychiatrist needs to stay up-to-date on current medications and prescribing recommendations so they know what they should and should not give their patients.

Types of medications that a psychiatrist may work with include:

Psychiatrists also understand and can recommend any over-the-counter medications that may help, including dietary supplements. It is important that they understand how other non-psychiatric medications work so they can manage psychiatric care with other medications a patient may be taking.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is sometimes also called talk therapy. This type of non-medication therapy can be very effective in managing the symptoms of mental disorders. During a therapy session, a psychiatrist can help their patients learn healthy coping strategies, develop positive ways of thinking and acting, and learn to manage their condition outside of therapy time.

Psychiatrists can become skilled in a variety of psychotherapy techniques, including:

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used to be called electroshock therapy, but this technique is much more precise currently. Doctors use a specialized machine to create a brief electric shock through a patient’s head, inducing a medically controlled seizure. During this procedure, the patient is under anesthesia and closely monitored.

Usually, ECT is only used for severe cases of depression, anxiety and other diseases where medication and psychotherapy have been ineffective. It is one of the most successful treatments for severe depression and anxiety.

Finding a Psychiatrist

Searching for a psychiatrist can be a daunting task, especially as it can feel embarrassing for some people to ask for this help. For people struggling with a mental illness like depression or anxiety, just picking up the phone to make an appointment can be a challenge. However, know that there are many people and resources that can help people find a psychiatrist near you who will meet your needs.

A good place to start is by asking your family doctor or primary care provider. They often have a list of nearby psychiatrists who they can recommend. Several organizations, such as the American Psychiatric Association, have web pages you can visit to search for a psychiatrist online.

Psychiatric disorders are often linked with substance use disorders. When someone experiences a drug or alcohol addiction and a mental health condition simultaneously, they have a co-occurring disorder.

If you or someone you know is struggling with drug or alcohol addiction and a related mental health problem, specialized help is always available. Contact The Recovery Village today to learn what resources are available to you.

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