The relationship between alcohol and gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is more complex than you might think.
Article at a Glance:
There are several important points to remember about alcohol use and GABA, including:
Alcohol and GABA both produce relaxing and sedating effects in the body
Alcohol does not increase levels of GABA, but it produces similar effects
Drinking too much can overstimulate GABA pathways
Drinking large amounts of alcohol over time can cause desensitized GABA receptors, increasing chances of developing an alcohol use disorder
Alcohol and GABA
Gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is a neurotransmitter that blocks certain impulses fired between nerve cells in the brain. It is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Because GABA receptors are located in many parts of the brain, binding to them can have various effects. However, GABA activation is generally associated with sedation and relaxation.
Alcohol mimics the effects of GABA by binding to GABA receptors in the brain. While alcohol and GABA have similar effects, does alcohol affect levels of GABA? Alcohol does not increase GABA, but it produced similar effects on the body.
How Alcohol Impacts GABA
Alcohol is an agonist of GABA receptors, meaning that alcohol binds to certain GABA receptors in the brain, where it replicates the activity of the GABA. This activity causes relaxed or tired feelings after drinking.
The body creates GABA from glutamate with the help of certain enzymes. Notably, alcohol is not involved in the production of GABA. Additionally, alcohol does not speed up or slow down the production of GABA. In other words, alcohol does not directly affect GABA levels. However, there are important implications to consider long-term or excessive alcohol use.
Drinking too much can overstimulate GABA pathways, causing extreme sedation of the central nervous system and, in turn, alcohol toxicity and overdose.
Continued exposure to alcohol over time can desensitize the GABA receptors. This desensitization may cause people to feel increased stress or anxiety, which may make them want to drink more frequently. Tolerance to alcohol is built over time and can lead to dependence or addiction.
Desensitized GABA receptors due to alcohol abuse use may also explain why people experience alcohol withdrawal symptoms like anxiety when they attempt to stop drinking. Their brains may become overstimulated and unable to regulate GABA on their own, triggering withdrawal symptoms once they become sober.
If you are worried about your alcohol consumption, treatment options are available. Call The Recovery Village todayto speak with someone who can guide you toward the right program for your needs. Calling The Recovery Village is free and confidential, and you don’t have to commit to an alcohol rehab program over the phone.
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Socrates Bardi, Jason. “The effects of alcohol on the brain.” Published February 25, 2002. Accessed March 23, 2019.
Davies, Martin. “The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system.” Published July 2003. Accessed March 23, 2019.
Banerjee, Niladri. “Neurotransmitters in alcoholism: A review of neurobiological and genetic studies”. Published January 2014. Accessed March 23, 2019.
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